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指纹识别惨遭‘橘子皮’破解,指静脉识别或成救局之道

2018-3-7 10:45| 投稿: xiaotiger |来自: 互联网

摘要: 十五年前,日本富士通推出世界上第一款严格意义上的指纹识别手机F505i:它将指纹识别模块装于数字键区底部,让指纹解锁第一次被人们所认识;五年后,iphone5s横空出世,一直被人们当做概念的指纹识别一夜之间被人们 ...

十五年前,日本富士通推出世界上第一款严格意义上的指纹识别手机F505i:它将指纹识别模块装于数字键区底部,让指纹解锁第一次被人们所认识;五年后,iphone5s横空出世,一直被人们当做概念的指纹识别一夜之间被人们所熟知。

该技术的落地被认为是二十一世纪最具颠覆性的创新之一。安全、精准、快速,这是指纹识别邂逅智能手机之后得到的极大褒奖。

但,科技在世界范围内的流通从来都是双面的,它给世界带来惊喜的同时也带来了无尽烦恼。

近日,一段用‘橘子皮’解锁手机指纹识别的视频在网上疯传。在搭载有指纹验证功能的智能手机上贴上一层透明胶带,就可以成功‘破解’该手机的解锁功能,目前此事已经引起了相关部门的注意,工信部、质检总局等部门已介入调查。

央视曝光的橘子皮破解手机指纹锁事件

雷锋网事后了解到,严格意义上来说,这并不属于技术安全问题,而是人为后期制造的BUG:贴上透明胶带(导电涂层)之后,用户触摸导电涂层解锁时,指纹传感器收到的信息其实是导电涂层而不是手指指纹。而多次使用之后,导电涂层会形成一部分用户指纹的固定图案,“无奈”的是,手机指纹算法只需识别指纹当中的一部分就能成功解锁,所以导电涂层固定的部分指纹图案,就能被任何导电物体按压解锁。

从这来看,虽然人为因素是造成指纹识别被‘橘子皮’破解的关键所在,但识别指纹部分区域就能成功解锁也是指纹识别技术的一大“漏洞”;另需注意的是,与时刻放在身边的移动设备不同,预贴导电涂层的手段还可以适用于各种指纹识别门锁上,也就是说,智能家居(门锁)等设备的潜在危险会更大。

藉由此,雷锋网第一时间联系到了专业从事生物识别技术研发工作的北京智慧眼CTO王栋博士,其反馈说,“世界上没有绝对的安全,厂商只能在成本、便利、安全之间找到最佳平衡点,通过此次事件来看,相比传统指纹识别来说,指静脉识别也许是更佳选择”。

智慧眼CTO王栋博士接受雷锋网记者采访

指纹识别之后,指静脉识别“后来居上”

雷锋网获悉,指静脉识别是生物识别技术的一种,该技术通过指静脉识别仪器取得个人指静脉分布图,然后依据专用比对算法从指静脉分布图中提取特征值。

王栋解释说,指静脉是人体内部的特征之一,人体静脉中红血球的血红素是氧气的还原血红素,还原血红素会吸收近红外线,因此当近红外线照射到手指时,只有静脉部分才会有微弱的反射,从而形成静脉纹路图像。之后的步骤与其他生物识别过程相差无几,静脉的特征值被提取并存储后,运用先进的滤波、图像二值化、细化手段对数字图像提取特征,采用复杂的匹配算法同存储在主机中静脉特征值比对匹配,从而对个人进行身份鉴定,确认身份。

指静脉识别技术工作原理流程图

“从某种意义上来说,这种技术就是一种活体识别技术,主要依靠红外光照射手指取得血管纹路,是靠血液流动形成的一种活体密码。相比传统指纹识别技术,指静脉识别不受手指是否潮湿、干净或者破损等因素的影响(无需接触仪器);另外更加安全、快速、准确,随机两个人的指静脉结构相同的几率是34亿分之一,因此可以说每个人的指静脉结构都独一无二;最值得一提的是,整个识别过程只需不到一秒钟便可完成。”他补充道。

指静脉技术的四大特点

他同时坦言,与传统指纹识别技术相比,指静脉识别技术的市场应用还不够广泛。主要原因在于该技术的发展与医学同步,2000年前后才逐步落地应用,用户对该技术的认知稍晚,而从这些年的研发应用来看,技术发展不存在障碍;从成本角度出发,价格也相差无几。

基于以上两点,该技术尚未爆发的最大因素就是用户认知不足,而基于指静脉安全性、稳定性、唯一性的三重优点,可以合理预判该技术未来有非常好的发展机遇。

智慧眼指静脉识别技术缘何三次登顶

谈及至此,王栋还向雷锋网分享了该技术的应用路径。他谈到,一直以来,指静脉识别技术都是日本、韩国等公司比较领先,而在经过近十年的努力后,包括智慧眼在内的中国技术公司已经遥遥领先。

以智慧眼为例来说,该公司指静脉识别技术已在2015年、2016年、2017年连续三年夺得全球指静脉挑战赛的冠军,技术误识率小于0.0001%,识别率大于99.99%,目前该技术已被成熟地应用在银行实名开户、指静脉取款、社保待遇资格认证、考试考生身份认证、军队信息化安全认证、住建工地实名制管理等领域。

智慧眼指静脉算法在国际挑战赛中排名第一

对于这个三连冠,王博士感慨颇深,“连续三年获得挑战赛冠军是件非常不易的事情,背后需要很多研发人员不懈的日夜努力” 。

从外来看,在比赛过程中,裁判除了关注识别率之外,还会看重一个非常重要的指标:特征提取后的特征长度(特征信息)。从应用角度出发,特征长度越短越好,因为可以让识别速度更快;但从技术角度来看,如果算法设计的不够好,越短的话,准确率也会越低。基于这两点,智慧眼找到了最佳平衡点:做到了在保证安全的前提下,特征长度尽量的短,识别率尽量的高。

智慧眼子公司在2017年指静脉国际算法挑战赛中再次排名第一

从内来看,与人脸识别一样,如今的指静脉识别算法也是基于深度学习去开发,对数据的要求比较高。 AI在行业落地时,数据的作用是毋庸置疑的,同样的算法,不同量级的数据量将导向不同的结果。AI想要落地和发挥作用,大规模统一标准的数据集是必不可少的,数据是一切的基础。而智慧眼由于在这块已经深耕多年,积累的数据对技术的领先性有很大帮助。

除了指静脉识别,智慧眼的AI征程

提到智慧眼,很多业内人士只闻其名不见其声。

内有数据,外有技术,一直以来,这家公司都将重心放在研发和应用落地上‘闷声发大财’。谁曾想到,这家成立于2009年的AI公司已经低调地高速发展了八年,除了上文所提到的指静脉识别技术外,智慧眼还拥有自主知识产权的人脸识别、智能视频分析等核心技术,其人脸识别技术在Google举办的Megaface算法挑战赛上名列前茅。在业务方面,从做社保身份认证起家,再到目前业务覆盖公安、司法、金融、教育等多个垂直行业,服务了超过全国1/10的人口,拥有全国最大规模的人脸识别应用。去年安博会期间雄踞深圳会展中心一号馆,与海康、大华、宇视毗邻。

而他们的目标也让人欣赏:打造识别万物的智慧之眼,推动智能化社会的实现。短短二十字,汇聚了王栋的期望,也涵括了众多智慧眼人的目标及挑战。

在他们看来,AI技术是让用户接入未来智能社会的一把钥匙。作为社会主体构成的人、车、物身份的数字化是智能社会的前提,而AI正是实现这一目标的关键技术,它可以让万物之间的信息交互更加便捷、安全。

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